Facilities and Equipment
A broad range of tools for materials growth, processing, electrical, optical, and nanoscale characterization are available through the Co-PI's laboratories at CSM, joint-use facilities in the Center for Solar and Electronic Materials, the Renewable Energy Materials Research Science and
- Electronic materials processing lab with over 2000 sq-ft and facilities for thermal, e-beam, and sputter evaporation systems, oxide growth, dopant diffusion, RIE, probe stations, fume hoods, and a Class-1000 clean room with optical lithography tools, spin-on film deposition and programmable annealing stations.
- Facilities for temperature dependent photoluminescence, electroluminescence and excitation spectroscopy including: High sensitivity LN2 cooled Si CCD detector. Roper Scientific and SPEX spectrometers. Close cycle and continuous flow cryostats. Lasers sources, including: CW Argon ion laser, CW tunable Ti-Sapphire laser, modelocked Nd:YAG laser, dye lasers, cavity dumper, a pulsed Nitrogen laser.
- Nicolet 6700 research-grade FTIR spectrometer with Au-coated optics, 0.125 cm-1 resolution, DLaTGS and MCT detectors, photoelastic 50kHz polarization modulator, dual channel demodulator, variable angle reflection-absorption sample holder.
- FTIR ellipsometer with variable angle optics, autocolimation sample alignment, coupled to Nicolet 6700 FTIR spectrometer.
- Gamry PCI4 potentiostat/impedance spectroscopy system for electrochemical control and capacitance measurements. Princeton Applied Research Model 173 potentiostat controlled by eDAQ digital interface. Solartron 1250 Frequency Response Analyzer for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.
- WiTec Alpha500 automated imaging system with synchronized AFM and confocal Raman capability. Motorized large scale scan (0.1 x 0.15 mm) with piezo-driven nano-scale stage.
- Vibrational sum-frequency generation spectrometer based on a nanosecond, Q-switched Nd YAG pulsed laser with a full set of frequency mixing crystals, coupled to a pulsed dye laser. The facility includes an 8-meter confocal cavity in a high-pressure hydrogen chamber for producing tunable coherent infrared radiation via the stimulated Raman effect.
- Digital Instruments Nanoscope III AFM with contact, tapping, phase, electric and magnetic force modes.
- Cary-V UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer for measurements of transmission, reflection, and absorption.
- Woollam variable-angle, spectroscopic ellipsometer designed for reflection and transmission polarimetry (to determine the full Jones matrix spectra) over a spectral range from 200 nm to 1700 nm.
- Surface analysis including a Kratos Model HSi X-Ray Photoemission Spectrometer with Al K-a source, Ar sputter-cleaning capability, and sample prep chamber.
- Ultrafast science research laboratory. The laboratory features a broad array of laser systems, both for high-intensity laser science and nonlinear microscopy, coherent control of chemical processes, micromachining, spectroscopy, etc. With these laser sources ultrafast light is available across the spectrum-from 200 nm to 10 μm.
- Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy. One system for transmission, reflection, photoluminescence, and photocurrent, and the second specialized for nanolithography and routine room temperature transmission and photocurrent studies. Facilities are available for preparing tips for the instruments.
- Conventional Raman spectroscopy laboratory, including argon ion and krypton ion laser sources, Spex double pass and triple pass monchromators, high sensitivity CCD detectors, low dark count cooled photomultipliers, and a micro-Raman sampling
- Micro-Transmission and Reflection Tool.
- Microscopy facility including a FEI Quanta 600 ESEM with EDS, Philips CM200 STEM, and a SBT XLA2000 low angle ion mill. Funding for a new Field Emission SEM with nanolithography patterning capability has been awarded.
- Thin film characterization equipment including a Tencor P10 surface profiler, a nanoindenter, and a Gaertner laser-based three-wavelength ellipsometer.
- Electrical characterization including impedance spectroscopy and drive level capacitance profiling, Seebeck effect measurement system, two temperature-dependent Hall effect systems (Bio-Rad HL5500PC and Lakeshore 7507), I-V characterization, and PV quantum efficiency.
- X-ray analysis facility, including small angle and glancing incidence measurements. In addition to the above user facilities, the CSM Physics department maintains an electronics shop staffed by an electronics technician, and a well-equipped machine shop, which is operated by a highly skilled Instrument Maker.
In addition, through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory collaboration, which is an integral part of this project, participants will have access to NREL facilities. Particularly important to the collaboration are:
- Extensive synthesis and characterization capabilities for thin film oxides including pulsed laser and sputter deposition.
- Expertise and tools for synthesis of oxide nanostructures (at CSM, through collaboration with NREL, and through collaboration with NTNU in
- Capability to produce and or modify films and nanostructures in a variety of controlled atmospheres. Several inert atmosphere dry boxes and vacuum lines are dedicated to this area. This allows deposition of polymeric films in controlled environments.
- Extensive device/structure fabrication facilities and in particular, for fabrication of polymer solar cells and LEDs. This will allow optimized organic/inorganic composites generated in this study to be readily incorporated in test device structures. These devices can then be characterized providing direct feedback on the nature and quality of the structures generated.
- In addition, the project will have access to a broad range of structural, optical, electronic, and analytical characterization equipment available in Dr. Ginley's group and as part of NREL user facilities.